The public defense of Inna Valieva’s licentiate thesis in Electronics
The public defense of Inna Valieva’s licentiate thesis in Electronics will take place at Mälardalen University, room U2-024 (Västerås Campus) and virtually via Zoom at 9:15 on January 22, 2021.
Title: “Spectrum Sensing for Dynamic Spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio”.
Serial number: 300.
The faculty examiner is Professor Dag Stranneby, Örebro Universitet.
The examining committee consists of Professor Dag Stranneby; Professor Björn Landfeldt, Lund Universitet; Professor Peter Stenumgaard, FOI.
Reserve is Professor Sasikumar Punnekkat, Mälardalen University.
The number of mobile devices is constantly growing, and the exclusive static spectrum allocation approach is leading to the spectrum scarcity problem when some of the licensed bands are heavily occupied and others are nearly unused. Spectrum sharing and opportunistic spectrum access allow achieving more efficient spectrum utilization. Radio scene analysis is a first step in the cognitive radio operation required to employ opportunistic spectrum access scenarios such as dynamic spectrum access or frequency hopping spread spectrum. The objective of this work is to develop and virtual prototype the subset of radio scene analysis algorithms intended to be used for deployment of opportunistic spectrum access in our target application: a cognitive radio network consisting of multiple software-defined radio nodes BitSDR. The proposed radio scene analysis algorithms are devoted to solving two radio scene analysis problems: 1. detection of vacant frequency channels to implement spectrum sharing scenarios; 2. waveform estimation including modulation type, symbol rate, and central frequency estimation. From the subset of two radio scene analysis problems two hypotheses are formulated: the first is related to the vacant band identification and the second to waveform estimation. Then seven research questions related to the trade-off between the sensing accuracy and real-time operation requirement for the proposed radio scene analysis algorithms, the nature of the noise, and assumptions used to model the radio scene environment such as the AWGN channel.
In the scope of this work, Hypothesis 1, dedicated to vacant frequency bands detection, has been proven. Research questions related to the selection of the observation bandwidth, vacant channels detection threshold, and the optimal algorithm have been answered. We have proposed, prototyped, and tested a vacant frequency channels detection algorithm based on wavelet transform performing multichannel detection in the wide band of 56 MHz based on the received signal observed during 500 microseconds. Detection accuracy of 91 % has been demonstrated. Detection has been modeled as a binary hypothesis testing problem. The main advantage of using wavelets is the possibility of the results of wavelet transform to be applied for solving the waveform estimation problem including symbol rate and modulation type. Test data samples have been generated during the controlled experiment by the hardware signal generator and received by proprietary hardware based on AD9364 Analog Devices transceiver. To test Hypothesis 2 research questions related to the waveform estimation have been elaborated. The algorithm and features that have been chosen for modulation type classification have not met the required classification accuracy to classify between five studied modulation classes 2FSK, BPSK, QPSK, 8PSK, and 16PSK. Therefore, Hypothesis 2 has been rejected. To capture more of the fine differences between the received signal modulated into different linear modulations it has been suggested to use the spectral features derived from the time series signal observed during 500 microseconds or less observation time in the scope of future work. However, the binary classification between 2FSK and BPSK presented in Paper 1 could be performed based on instantaneous values and SNR input: ensemble boosted trees and decision trees have shown an average classification accuracy of 86.3 % and 86.0 % respectively and classification speed of 1200000 objects per second, which is faster than the required 2000 objects per second. The prototyping and testing of the proposed algorithm for symbol rate estimation based on deep learning have been performed to answer research question 2. Wavelet transform feature extraction has been proposed to be applied as a preprocessing step for deep learning-based estimation of the symbol rate for 2FSK modulated signals. This algorithm has shown an improvement in the accuracy of the symbol rate estimation in comparison with cyclostationary based detection. The validation accuracy of the symbol rate classification has reached 99.7 %. During testing, the highest average classification accuracy of 100 % has been observed for the signals with SNR levels 25-30 dB, while for signals with SNR 20-25 dB it was 96.3 %.